Synovial Fluid Analysis #synovial #fluid #analysis, # #2006 #21st #abnormal #abnormally #activities


#

Synovial Fluid Analysis

Synovial fluid analysis is a group of tests that examine joint (synovial) fluid. The tests help diagnose and treat joint-related problems.

Alternative Names

Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration

How the test is performed

A sample of synovial fluid is needed for this test. Synovial fluid is normally a thick, straw-colored liquid found in small amounts in joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths.

After the area is cleaned, the health care provider will insert a sterile needle through the skin and into the joint space. Once in the joint, fluid is drawn through the needle into a sterile syringe.

The fluid sample is sent to the laboratory. The laboratory technician will check the sample’s color and clarity, and then place it under a microscope to check it for red and white blood cells, crystals (in the case of gout), and bacteria. In addition, there may be a chemical analysis, and if infection is a concern, a sample will be cultured to see if any bacteria grow.

How to prepare for the test

Normally, no special preparation is necessary, but contact your health care provider before the test to make sure. Tell your doctor if you are taking blood thinners, as they can affect test results.

How the test will feel

Occasionally, the health care provider will first inject local anesthesia with a small needle, which will sting. The aspiration is done with a larger needle and may also cause some pain. The procedure usually lasts less than one minute.

Why the test is performed

The test can help diagnose the cause of pain or swelling in joints. Removing the fluid can also help relieve joint pain.

This test may be used to diagnose:

  • Gout
  • Infection
  • Other inflammatory joint conditions
  • Joint injury
  • Osteoarthritis

What abnormal results mean

Abnormal joint fluid may look cloudy or abnormally thick.

Blood in the joint fluid may be a sign of injury inside the joint or a body-wide bleeding problem. An excess amount of normal synovial fluid can also be a sign of osteoarthritis.

What the risks are

  • Infection of the joint — unusual but more common with repeated aspirations
  • Bleeding into the joint space

Special considerations

Ice or cold packs may be applied to the joint for 24 to 36 hours after the test to reduce the swelling and joint pain. Depending on the exact problem, you can probably resume your normal activities after the procedure. Talk to your health care provider to determine what activity is most appropriate for you.

References

Knight JA, Kjeldsberg CR. Cerebrospinal, synovial, and serous body fluids. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2006:chap 28.

Review Date: 7/10/2009

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 2010 A.D.A.M. Inc. as modified by University of California San Francisco. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Information developed by A.D.A.M. Inc. regarding tests and test results may not directly correspond with information provided by UCSF Medical Center. Please discuss with your doctor any questions or concerns you may have.

Getting Care


Salmonella Poisoning (Salmonellosis) Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, salmonella virus or bacteria.#Salmonella #virus #or


#

Salmonellosis – Topic Overview

Salmonellosis

What is salmonellosis?

Salmonellosis is a type of food poisoning caused by the Salmonella enterica bacterium. There are many different kinds of these bacteria. Salmonella serotype Typhimurium and Salmonella serotype Enteritidis are the most common types in the United States.

Salmonellosis is more common in the summer than in the winter. Children are the most likely to get salmonellosis. Young children, older adults, and people who have impaired immune systems are the most likely to have severe infections.

What causes salmonellosis?

You can get salmonellosis by eating food contaminated with salmonella. This can happen in the following ways:

  • Food may be contaminated during food processing or food handling.
  • Food may become contaminated by the unwashed hands of an infected food handler. A frequent cause is a food handler who does not wash his or her hands with soap after using the bathroom.
  • Salmonella may also be found in the feces of some pets, especially those with diarrhea. You can become infected if you do not wash your hands after contact with these feces.
  • Reptiles, baby chicks and ducklings, and small rodents such as hamsters are particularly likely to carry Salmonella. You should always wash your hands immediately after handling one of these animals, even if the animal is healthy. Adults should also be careful that children wash their hands after handling reptiles, pet turtles, baby chicks or ducklings, or small rodents.

Beef, poultry, milk, and eggs are most often infected with salmonella. But vegetables may also be contaminated. Contaminated foods usually look and smell normal.

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms of salmonellosis include diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps. They develop 12 to 72 hours after infection, and the illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days. Most people recover without treatment. But diarrhea and dehydration may be so severe that it is necessary to go to the hospital. Older adults, infants, and those who have impaired immune systems are at highest risk.

If you only have diarrhea, you usually recover completely, although it may be several months before your bowel habits are entirely normal. A small number of people who are infected with salmonellosis develop reactive arthritis, a disease that can last for months or years and can lead to chronic arthritis.

Continued

How is salmonellosis diagnosed?

Salmonellosis is diagnosed based on a medical history and a physical exam. Your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms, foods you have recently eaten, and your work and home environments. A stool culture and blood tests may be done to confirm the diagnosis.

How is it treated?

You treat salmonellosis by managing any complications until it passes. Dehydration caused by diarrhea is the most common complication. Antibiotics are not usually needed unless the infection has spread.

To prevent dehydration, take frequent sips of a rehydration drink (such as Pedialyte). Try to drink a cup of water or rehydration drink for each large, loose stool you have. Soda and fruit juices have too much sugar and not enough of the important electrolytes that are lost during diarrhea, and they should not be used to rehydrate.

Try to stay with your usual diet as much as possible. Eating your usual diet will help you to get enough nutrition. Doctors believe that eating a normal diet will also help you feel better faster. But try to avoid foods that are high in fat and sugar. Also avoid spicy foods, alcohol, and coffee for 2 days after all symptoms have disappeared.

How can you prevent salmonellosis?

To prevent salmonellosis:

  • Do not eat raw or undercooked eggs. Raw eggs may be used in some foods such as homemade hollandaise sauce, Caesar and other salad dressings, tiramisu, homemade ice cream, homemade mayonnaise, cookie dough, and frostings.
  • Cook foods until they are well done. Use a meat thermometer to be sure foods are cooked to a safe temperature. Do not use the color of the meat (such as when it is no longer “pink”) to tell you that it is done.
  • Avoid raw or unpasteurized milk or other dairy products.
  • Wash or peel produce before eating it.
  • Avoid cross-contamination of food. Keep uncooked meats separate from produce, cooked foods, and ready-to-eat foods. Thoroughly wash hands, cutting boards, counters, knives, and other utensils after handling uncooked foods.
  • Wash your hands before handling any food and between handling different food items.
  • Do not prepare food or pour water for others when you have salmonellosis.
  • Wash your hands after contact with animal feces. Since reptiles are particularly likely to carry salmonella bacteria, wash your hands immediately after handling them. Consider not having reptiles (including turtles) as pets, especially if you have small children or an infant.

ScienceDaily: Your source for the latest research news #agriculture, #animals, #anthropology, #astronomy,


#

June 30, 2017 For the first time, researchers have demonstrated a surprising effect of microglia, the scavenger cells of the brain: If these cells lack the TDP-43 protein, they not only remove Alzheimer’s plaques, but also synapses. This removal of synapses by these cells presumably lead to neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative. read more

July 1, 2017 Ten years after cigarettes were banished from all UK pubs, clubs, bars and restaurants, new figures reveal there are 1.9 million fewer smokers in Britain compared to when the smoking ban was introduced in 2007, with smoking rates now the lowest ever. read more

June 30, 2017 “Sport is too much like hard work.” For many, that is reason enough to pass when it comes to exercise. But does sport really have to make you break into a sweat? Psychologists have discovered that one’s own expectations have a major influence on just how strenuous one perceives a unit of sport to. read more

June 26, 2017 People who are visually impaired will often use a cane to feel out their surroundings. With training and practice, people can learn to use the pitch, loudness and timbre of echoes from the cane or other sounds to navigate safely through the environment. read more

June 29, 2017 Measuring a set of proteins in the blood may enable earlier diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to a. read more

June 28, 2017 In the future, it may be possible to diagnose cancer much earlier using improved detection systems. Computing resources are helping researchers explore improved breast tissue mapping, nanopore and lab-on-a-chip biosensors, and cell-entering cancer detectors. Advanced computing is critical for the simulation and materials design aspects of these emerging diagnostic. read more

June 29, 2017 A collaboration between biologists and materials scientists is yielding new insights into the wings of the “skipper butterfly” in the Costa Rican rainforest. What they learn could lead to technological advancements in systems ranging from power-efficient computer displays to sensors to energy. read more

June 29, 2017 Passengers have more chance of winning the National Lottery jackpot than being allocated middle seats at random on a Ryanair flight, according to a new. read more

June 29, 2017 Researchers have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum. read more

June 30, 2017 Researchers have further uncovered the secrets of telomeres, the caps that protect the ends of our chromosomes. They discovered that an RNA molecule called TERRA helps to ensure that very short (or broken) telomeres get fixed again. The work provides new insights into cellular processes that regulate cell senescence and survival in aging and. read more

June 29, 2017 The ongoing transition from nomadic cultures to settled lifestyles and intensifying agriculture has led to a steep drop not only in the use of fire on local lands, but in the prevalence of fire worldwide. read more

June 30, 2017 A new study comparing dissolved black carbon deposition on ice and snow in ecosystems around the world (including Antarctica, the Arctic, and alpine regions of the Himalayas, Rockies, Andes, and Alps) shows that while concentrations vary widely, significant amounts can persist in both pristine and non-pristine areas of. read more

June 29, 2017 A novel composite material shows promise as a catalyst for the degradation of environmentally-harmful synthetic dye pollutants, which are released at a rate of nearly 300,000 tons a year into the. read more

June 30, 2017 A new study urges the UNESCO World Heritage Convention to better conserve wilderness areas within Natural World Heritage Sites. The study revealed that only 1.8 percent of the world’s wilderness is protected in these. read more

June 30, 2017 Understanding modern biodiversity and extinction threats is important. It is commonly assumed that being large contributes to vulnerability during extinction crises. However, researchers have found that size played no role in the extinction of fish during the largest mass extinction of all. read more

June 29, 2017 The South Caucasus — home to the countries of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan — geographically links Europe and the Near East. The area has served for millennia as a major crossroads for human migration, with strong archaeological evidence for big cultural shifts over time. And yet, surprisingly, ancient mitochondrial DNA evidence finds no. read more

June 29, 2017 One popular theory about the Paleolithic cave paintings proposes that sites were chosen based on the acoustics in the caves. The originators of the theory reported a causal connection between the ‘points of resonance’ in three French caves and the position of Paleolithic cave. read more

June 29, 2017 Defective viruses incorporated into grass genomes may adapt to form partnerships with other genome-incorporated viruses in order to complete their life cycle, according to a new study. The findings suggest that partner viruses evolve in concert, enabling them to maintain their relationship. read more


Global Outreach Membership #conferences, #journals, #microbiology, #career, #research, #lab, #microbe, #library, #images,


#

The ASM Global Outreach Program aims to enhance scientific knowledge exchange between ASM and members in developing countries by providing direct assistance for scientific& research needs via ASM’s cutting-edge resources and membership network.

In recognition of the significant challenges faced by scientists in developing countries, ASM hopes to empower local microbiology communities and identify leaders by offering access to ASM’s resources, extensive network of over 40,000 members and additional member-only benefits provided at no cost .

How can ASM empower you?

·Free ASM Membership.a $63 value!

  • Free access to:
  • A global network of 40,000 microbiologists , as well as member-only resources on archive.asm.org
  • ASM’s 12 internationally recognized scientific journals and the ASM magazine Microbe. A package valued at $250!
  • Microbe Library . w ith thousands of images, videos, articles and instructional guides.
  • Cumitechs , consensus reports that provide practical guidance and background information for those working in the field of clinical microbiology. a $250 value!
  • Ecosal.org , essential reading materials for E. coli and Salmonella. a $150 value!
  • Discounts- Earn major discounts on ASM conferences, books, and online resources
  • Professional Development Enhance your career options with ASM’s online job search, pre-conference workshops, webinars and mentoring programs
  • Awards and Grants Qualify for member-only achievement awards, travel grants, fellowships and professorships.
  • Facebook Groups Join the scientific discussion on one or more of ASM’s International Facebook Groups and network with microbiologists from around the globe. archive.asm.org/international/facebook-groups .


Although ASM membership and subscriptions are provided at no cost, they must be renewed annually. Print journals are not free. If they are requested, the member will be billed for them at the current member rate.

Join ASM as a Global Outreach member for free:

  • Please visit the ASM eStore and select “create an account”
  • Upon return to the ASM eStore homepage, click “ASM Membership and Join ASM”
  • Your Global Outreach membership, subscriptions to EcoSal.org, Cumitechs, and all 12 ASM online journals will be added to your checkout cart at no cost.
  • You will receive a confirmation email with your membership number within 24-72 hours.

Sign up

Meetings

Courses Programs

Blogs

Connect With ASM

Contact ASM