Federal Tax Credits For Solar Energy Systems #solar #energy #tax #credits, #solar


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Federal Tax Credits: Solar Energy Systems

Solar Water Heaters

Solar water heaters come in a wide variety of designs, all including a collector and storage tank, and all using the sun’s thermal energy to heat water. Solar water heaters are typically described according to the type of collector and the circulation system.

At least half of the energy generated by the “qualifying property” must come from the sun. The system must be certified by the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) or a comparable entity endorsed by the government of the state in which the property is installed.

Note: The credit is not available for expenses for swimming pools or hot tubs. The water must be used in the dwelling.

Photovoltaic systems must provide electricity for the residence, and must meet applicable fire and electical code requirements.

Tax Credit includes installation costs.

Solar Panels (Photovoltaic Systems)

Solar Panels or Photovoltaic Systems are solar cells that capture light energy from the sun and convert it directly into electricity.

Requirements
Photovoltaic systems must provide electricity for the residence, and must meet applicable fire and electrical code requirements.


Moisture damage #homes, #health, #professionals, #schools, #commercial #buildings


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Mold Basics The key to mold control is moisture control. If mold is a problem in your home, you should clean up the mold promptly and fix the water problem.

It is important to dry water-damaged areas and items within 24-48 hours to prevent mold growth.
Molds gradually destroy the things they grow on. You can prevent damage to your home and furnishings, save money, and avoid potential health problems by controlling moisture and eliminating mold growth.

Molds are Part of the Natural Environment Outdoors, molds play a part in nature by breaking down dead organic matter, such as fallen leaves and dead trees, but indoors, mold growth should be avoided.

Molds reproduce by means of tiny spores; the spores are invisible to the naked eye and float through outdoor and indoor air.

Mold may begin growing indoors when mold spores land on surfaces that are wet. There are many types of mold, and none of them will grow without water or moisture.

Can Mold Cause Health Problems? Molds are usually not a problem indoors, unless mold spores land on a wet or damp spot and begin growing.

Molds have the potential to cause health problems.

Inhaling or touching mold or mold spores may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals.

Molds can also cause asthma attacks in people with asthma who are allergic to mold. In addition, mold exposure can irritate the eyes, skin, nose, throat and lungs of both mold-allergic and non-allergic people.

For health concerns, consult a health professional or your state or local health department.

How Do I Get Rid of Mold? It is impossible to get rid of all mold and mold spores indoors. Mold spores will not grow if moisture is not present. Indoor mold growth can and should be prevented or controlled by controlling moisture indoors.

If there is mold growth in your home, you must clean up the mold and fix the water problem. If you clean up the mold, but don t fix the water problem, then, most likely, the mold problem will come back.

Mold Cleanup Who should do the cleanup depends on a number of things.

One consideration is the size of the mold problem.

If the moldy area is less than about 10 square feet (less than roughly a 3 ft. by 3 ft. patch), in most cases, you can handle the job yourself following EPA s mold guidelines. If you have health concerns, consult a health professional before starting cleanup.

If there has been a lot of water damage and/or mold growth covers more than 10 square feet, you may choose to hire a contractor (or other professional service provider) to do the cleanup.

If the water and/or mold damage was caused by sewage or other contaminated water, then call in a professional who has experience cleaning and fixing buildings damaged by contaminated water.

Mold Cleanup Guidelines Fix plumbing leaks and other water problems as soon as possible. Dry all items completely.
Scrub mold off hard surfaces with detergent and water, and dry completely.
Absorbent or porous materials, such as ceiling tiles and carpet, may have to be thrown away if they become moldy.
Avoid exposing yourself or others to mold (see discussions: What to Wear When Cleaning Moldy Areas and Hidden Mold ).
Do not paint or caulk moldy surfaces. Clean up the mold and dry the surfaces before painting. Paint applied over moldy surfaces is likely to peel. Learn More about Mold Cleanup Guidelines

  • What to Wear When Cleaning Moldy Areas Moisture Control is the Key to Mold Control.

    Wear an N-95 respirator to avoid breathing in mold or mold spores. N-95 respirators may be found in many hardware stores and from companies that advertise on the Internet. In order to be effective, the respirator or mask must fit properly, so carefully follow the instructions supplied with the respirator.
    Wear gloves to avoid touching mold or moldy items with your bare hands. Long gloves that extend to the middle of the forearm are recommended. To learn about what types of gloves to wear, see Cleanup and Biocides.
    Wear goggles to avoid getting mold or mold spores in your eyes. Goggles that do not have ventilation holes are recommended. Learn More about What to Wear When Cleaning Up Mold

  • How Do I Know When the Remediation or Cleanup is Finished? You must have completely fixed the water or moisture problem before the cleanup or remediation can be considered finished.

    You should have completed mold removal. Visible mold and moldy odors should not be present. Please note that mold may cause staining and cosmetic damage.
    You should have revisited the site(s) shortly after cleanup, and it should show no signs of water damage or mold growth.
    People should have been able to occupy or re-occupy the area without health complaints or physical symptoms.
    Ultimately, this is a judgment call; there is no easy answer. Learn More about How to Determine when Cleanup is Finished

  • Moisture and Mold Prevention and Control Tips When water leaks or spills occur indoors ACT QUICKLY. If wet or damp materials or areas are dried 24-48 hours after a leak or spill happens, in most cases mold will not grow. Clean and repair roof gutters regularly. Make sure the ground slopes away from the building foundation, so that water does not enter or collect around the foundation. Keep air conditioning drip pans clean and the drain lines unobstructed and flowing properly. Keep indoor humidity below 60 percent (ideally between 30 and 50 percent). If you see condensation or moisture collecting on windows, walls or pipes ACT QUICKLY to dry the wet surface and reduce the moisture/water source. Condensation can be a sign of high humidity. Learn more about actions that will help to actions to reduce humidity and help prevent condensation. Learn More about Mold and Moisture Prevention and Control
  • Testing or Sampling for Mold Is sampling for mold needed?

    In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary.

    Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to check a building s compliance with federal mold standards.

    Surface sampling may be useful to determine if an area has been adequately cleaned or remediated.

    Sampling for mold should be conducted by professionals who have specific experience in designing mold sampling protocols, sampling methods and interpreting results. Sample analysis should follow analytical methods recommended by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) or other professional organizations.

    Hidden Mold You may suspect hidden mold if a building smells moldy, but you cannot see the source, or if you know there has been water damage and residents are reporting health problems.
    Mold may be hidden in places such as:

    The back side of dry wall, wallpaper, or paneling
    The top side of ceiling tiles
    The underside of carpets and pads
    Inside walls around pipes
    The surface of walls behind furniture
    Inside ductwork
    In roof materials above ceiling tiles (due to roof leaks or insufficient insulation) If you believe that you may have a hidden mold problem, consider hiring an experienced professional.

    Cleanup and Biocides Biocides are substances that can destroy living organisms.

    The use of a chemical or biocide that kills organisms such as mold (chlorine bleach, for example) is not recommended as a routine practice during mold cleanup. If you choose to use disinfectants or biocides, always ventilate the area and exhaust the air to the outdoors.

    In most cases, it is not possible or desirable to sterilize an area; a background level of mold spores will remain these spores will not grow if the moisture problem has been resolved.

    There may be instances, however, when professional judgment may indicate use of a chemical or biocide (for example, when immune-compromised individuals are present).

    Never mix chlorine bleach solution with other cleaning solutions or detergents that contain ammonia because toxic fumes could be produced.

    More Information A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home This Guide provides information and guidance for homeowners and renters on how to clean up residential mold problems and how to prevent mold growth.

    To view or download EPA s complete guidance please go to A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture and Your Home

  • Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem.


    Systems health management #acoustics, #beams, #bending, #bolts, #breeam, #bridges, #buildings, #car #parks,


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    SteelConstruction.info

    Fabrication

    From Steelconstruction.info

    Fabrication is the process used to manufacture steelwork components that will, when assembled and joined, form a complete frame. The frame generally uses readily available standard sections that are purchased from the steelmaker or steel stockholder, together with such items as protective coatings and bolts from other specialist suppliers.

    Although a wide range of section shapes and sizes are produced, the designer may find that the required section size is not available. In this case, built-up girders may be fabricated from plate. Sections and plate girders may also be strengthened by stiffening the web or flanges depending upon the load to be carried.

    Most modern steelwork fabrication factories have computer aided design and detailing (CAD) which is linked directly to factory floor computer numerically controlled (CNC) machinery creating a genuine CAD/CAM environment. The accuracy of the computer generated details being transmitted directly to the computer aided manufacturing (CAM) machinery increases the quality standards of production

    The fact that machinery has taken over from the tape measure means that the frame is produced to high quality standards which are reflected in the speed and accuracy of steel erection on site. This results in significant benefits both to the client and main contractor.

    CAD/CAM machinery
    (Image courtesy of Paddy Wall Sons)

    Contents

    [top ] Design for economic fabrication

    There are a number of general “technical” factors to consider in terms of design for economic fabrication that apply to most building projects. Some relate to the complexity of the particular project, whilst others are specific to the type of project, e.g. multi-storey. portals. trusses.

    [top ] Specification

    Conformance with the National Structural Steelwork Specification for Building Construction (NSSS) will reduce uncertainty. Additional project specific clauses, more demanding tolerances, and additional testing will increase costs.

    [top ] Bay size

    Diagonal steel bracing – Silverstone
    (Image courtesy of Kingspan Structural Products)

    Structural steelwork prices are influenced by the size of each individual piece (i.e. number of pieces per tonne), which is largely dependent on bay size. Consider larger bay sizes, where the extra weight due to longer spans may be totally offset by the reduced price per tonne and the saving in number of columns and related workmanship. Also the resultant column-free space generally adds value to a project.

    Structural steel frames must have the required degree of lateral resistance to wind loads. This can be provided by a stiff core or by the frame itself – diagonal steel bracing is usually a less expensive solution than moment frames.

    [top ] Complexity

    Modern CNC fabrication equipment can cope with complex individualistic designs but, in general, the more complex the fabrication the greater the cost. Fabrication is more economic with:

    • Single square end cuts
    • One hole diameter on any one piece avoids drill bit changes
    • Holes in flanges and webs aligned where possible
    • Web holes having adequate flange clearance
    • Rationalised range of fittings for connections
    • The use of a small range of standard bolts. e.g. M20 grade 8.8 for shear connections

    Wherever possible, leave the choice of the connection detail to the steelwork contractor as the type and design of connections directly influences the total frame cost. Rationalise the range and tonnages of section sizes used.

    Complex individualistic designs are going to cost more per tonne, even with modern CNC equipment. If you wish to keep costs down – keep it simple!

    [top ] Materials

    Avoid mixing steel grades where possible and rationalise the range of section sizes / tonnages used in order to minimise cost, lead times and factory handling. In general steel grade S355 offers greater economy unless stiffness / deflection governs the design, in which case S275 should be used.

    Tubular steelwork at the National Football Centre
    (Image courtesy of Billington Structures Ltd.)

    Ensure that the most appropriate sections are specified for the particular application. “I” sections are usually most economical in conventional framing, while tubular sections are a possible alternative for columns and long span trusses. While tubular sections have a higher first cost than “I” sections, their lower overall gross weight required to perform the same function can largely offset this, often with an “aesthetic bonus”. Asymmetric beams are often used to reduce the construction depth of floor systems. Steel plate is used to fabricate connections. stiffeners and base plates and can be used to fabricate economic ‘I’ sections for longer spans.

    [top ] Architectural influence

    Ensure that unnecessary finishing is not specified and that any applied corrosion resistant coating is appropriate for the environmental conditions to be encountered. Grinding of welds to improve the appearance of the steel is usually only required for exposed steel in close proximity to a building’s occupants.

    [top ] Quality of engineering and documentation

    Completeness and accuracy of information are vital for a steelwork contractor to be able to properly assess the work involved. Where the steelwork is pre-designed, ensure that all member sizes are shown and that the connection forces are shown or are available. Guidance on identifying the requirements for the production and exchange of accurate, timely and detailed information for projects involving steelwork is available in BCSA publication no. 45/07.

    Further guidance on the design of buildings for economic fabrication is available in:

    Guidance on the design for economic fabrication of bridges is available in BCSA publication Steel Bridges. Chapter 7 – Costs.

    [top ] Materials and components

    Steel sections and plate. structural bolts. welding consumables, light gauge decking and corrosion protection and fire protection systems are all manufactured to European standards and in many cases are CE marked. In addition to these materials steel fabrication also needs fabrication equipment (e.g. cutting, sawing, drilling, welding machines etc.) and software (e.g. for computer controlled machinery).

    [top ] Sections and plates

    A stockholder’s external facility
    (Image courtesy of Rainham Steel Company Ltd.)

    Steel sections and plates are generally manufactured to BS EN 10025-2 [1] for open sections, BS EN 10210-1 [2] for hot-finished tubes. and BS EN 10219-1 [3] for cold-formed hollow sections. All sections are accompanied by Type 3.1, product specific CE Inspection documents.

    Large orders can be supplied direct from the steel mills, but Steelwork Contractors normally obtain their steel sections and plates from a steel stockholder. Steel stockholders play a vital part in the steel construction supply chain, ensuring that the market is supplied with what it needs when it is needed. The industry has an extensive network of depots serving all parts of the country. The stockholders provide a range of products to the construction industry including heavy structural sections. plates. light sections. cladding materials, flats, angles. Total stocks held represent about 40 days supply. All BCSA stockholder members have quality management systems such as BS EN ISO 9001 [4] in place supplemented by individual identification systems to ensure full traceability from the steel manufacturer to the steelwork contractor. The specification and quality controls placed on stockholders by the BCSA ‘Model Specification for the Purchase of Steel Sections and Plates’ ensures the quality of steel sections and plate placed on the UK market by BCSA stockholders.

    [top ] Bolts

    Although the majority of structural bolts are manufactured outside of the European community they are all CE marked and manufactured to European standards – BS EN 14399 [5] for preloaded bolts and BS EN 15048-1 [6] for non-preloaded bolts. The exacting quality control requirements placed on European manufacturers and distributors by the BCSA ‘Model Specification for the Purchase of Structural Bolting Assemblies and Holding Down Bolts’ ensures the quality of structural bolts placed on the UK market by BCSA bolt distributors.

    [top ] Proprietary products

    Proprietary products such as some cellular beams. fasteners, purlins. cladding and roofing systems are also available and can provide novel and cost effective alternative solutions. Many of these are manufactured to either European product standard or European Technical Approvals.

    Cellular beam manufacturing


    Mini-Storage Buildings, Self Storage Buildings, Free Floor Plans and Online Prices #mini


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    Self Storage Metal Buildings for Mini Warehouse Business

    Ironbuilt’s full line of self-storage, mini-warehouse and mini-storage buildings are the ideal option for your secure and cost effective storage business project. Construction costs are dramatically reduced as all the components are pre-fabricated and go together in a fraction of the time of conventional construction. With a variety of configurations, Ironbuilt’s steel mini-warehouse buildings can be customized to fit your property’s layout to allow for the maximum number of self storage units.

    Mini-Storage Building Gallery

    Ironbuilt’s unique hot-dipped galvanized framing option provides superior protection against rust. The galvanized components allow for you to easily wash down your floor area between tenants without damaging the building. Our metal storage buildings are precision manufactured for a secure tight seal. The Galvalume PBR roof panels, extra-wide mastic and foam and metal closures in your Ironbuilt mini-warehouse buildings will keep your customers’ belongings dry, prevent insects, rodents and birds from entering the self-storage units.

    Mini-storage systems are versatile and provide flexibility in the selection of the storage unit bay sizes. Ironbuilt offers two different insulation packages to choose from allowing you to climate-control some or all of your spaces. The storage bays can be custom designed to allow partitions to be added or removed at a future date. Gutters and downspouts keep the rain from running down the doors of the building.

    Versatile Self-Storage Steel Building Systems

    The Ironbuilt mini-warehouse buildings system can meet every type of mini-storage need. We offer many different storage building systems with various layouts to target your specific market. Climate controlled self storage buildings often use a gable style building with an interior hallway. For smaller storage building models you can use a single slope building with a row of units with entry from one sidewall. The typical mini-storage system will use a gable style building with entry along both sidewalls. Whatever your preferences are for the building style and bay sizes, an Ironbuilt project designer will work with you to achieve an effective design that stays within your budget.

    Mini Storage Floor Plan Layouts

    The mini storage building layouts below demonstrate some of the different storage unit sizes that are available and can be custom configured for your buliding.

    Click on building illustrations below to enlarge the images