Synovial Fluid Analysis #synovial #fluid #analysis, # #2006 #21st #abnormal #abnormally #activities


Synovial Fluid Analysis

Synovial fluid analysis is a group of tests that examine joint (synovial) fluid. The tests help diagnose and treat joint-related problems.

Alternative Names

Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration

How the test is performed

A sample of synovial fluid is needed for this test. Synovial fluid is normally a thick, straw-colored liquid found in small amounts in joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths.

After the area is cleaned, the health care provider will insert a sterile needle through the skin and into the joint space. Once in the joint, fluid is drawn through the needle into a sterile syringe.

The fluid sample is sent to the laboratory. The laboratory technician will check the sample’s color and clarity, and then place it under a microscope to check it for red and white blood cells, crystals (in the case of gout), and bacteria. In addition, there may be a chemical analysis, and if infection is a concern, a sample will be cultured to see if any bacteria grow.

How to prepare for the test

Normally, no special preparation is necessary, but contact your health care provider before the test to make sure. Tell your doctor if you are taking blood thinners, as they can affect test results.

How the test will feel

Occasionally, the health care provider will first inject local anesthesia with a small needle, which will sting. The aspiration is done with a larger needle and may also cause some pain. The procedure usually lasts less than one minute.

Why the test is performed

The test can help diagnose the cause of pain or swelling in joints. Removing the fluid can also help relieve joint pain.

This test may be used to diagnose:

  • Gout
  • Infection
  • Other inflammatory joint conditions
  • Joint injury
  • Osteoarthritis

What abnormal results mean

Abnormal joint fluid may look cloudy or abnormally thick.

Blood in the joint fluid may be a sign of injury inside the joint or a body-wide bleeding problem. An excess amount of normal synovial fluid can also be a sign of osteoarthritis.

What the risks are

  • Infection of the joint — unusual but more common with repeated aspirations
  • Bleeding into the joint space

Special considerations

Ice or cold packs may be applied to the joint for 24 to 36 hours after the test to reduce the swelling and joint pain. Depending on the exact problem, you can probably resume your normal activities after the procedure. Talk to your health care provider to determine what activity is most appropriate for you.


Knight JA, Kjeldsberg CR. Cerebrospinal, synovial, and serous body fluids. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2006:chap 28.

Review Date: 7/10/2009

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 2010 A.D.A.M. Inc. as modified by University of California San Francisco. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Information developed by A.D.A.M. Inc. regarding tests and test results may not directly correspond with information provided by UCSF Medical Center. Please discuss with your doctor any questions or concerns you may have.

Getting Care

Testosterone Levels by Age #normal #levels #of #testosterone #in #females


Testosterone Levels by Age

Testosterone and Aging

Testosterone is often thought of as the “fountain of youth” hormone. But naturally declining testosterone levels don’t cause signs and symptoms of aging, according to the Mayo Clinic.

However, low testosterone levels can cause changes in sexual function, including:

  • reduced sexual desire, or low libido
  • fewer spontaneous erections
  • impotence (erectile dysfunction)
  • infertility

Other signs of decreased testosterone levels include:

  • changes in sleep patterns
  • emotional changes, such as low self-confidence or lack of motivation
  • physical changes, like increased body fat, reduced muscle bulk and strength, and decreased bone density

The normal range of testosterone levels in healthy adult males is between 280 to 1,100 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL), reports the University of Rochester Medical Center. It’s important to determine if a low testosterone level is due to normal aging or if it’s due to a disorder.

Testosterone and Women

Testosterone levels affect women as well. However, women create lower levels and are more sensitive to androgens than men. Testosterone levels in women vary. According to the University of Rochester Medical Center. normal measurements range from 15 to 70 ng/dL.

A woman’s estrogen levels drop after she enters menopause. This makes her androgen levels comparatively higher. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) can also raise testosterone levels.

Excess androgens in a woman’s blood stream can cause obvious physical effects, including:

  • infertility
  • loss of scalp hair
  • acne
  • irregular or absent menses
  • growth of facial hair

Testosterone deficiency, on the other hand, can cause fertility problems, weak bones, and loss of libido.

Other Possibilities

While the symptoms described here are considered a normal part of aging, they could also be signs of several underlying factors. These include:

  • a reaction to certain medications
  • thyroid gland disorders
  • depression
  • excessive alcohol use

According to Mayo Clinic, the best way to diagnose low testosterone is to visit your doctor for a blood test. The University of Rochester Medical Center suggests that the best time of day to have a blood sample taken for a testosterone test is around 8 a.m. Results outside of the normal range could be caused by conditions like:

  • cancer of the ovaries or testes
  • failure of the testicles
  • early or delayed puberty
  • chronic illness (such as diabetes or kidney disease)
  • severe obesity
  • hypogonadism (sex glands produce little or no hormones)

It’s natural to be concerned about lower levels of testosterone. However, a gradual decrease is a normal part of aging. Talk to your doctor if you’re worried that there could a different cause.

Complete Blood Count Tests #cbc #normal #levels


A complete blood count (CBC) is a common blood test that your doctor may recommend for the following reasons:

To help diagnose some blood cancers, such as leukemia and lymphoma

Find out if cancer has spread to the bone marrow

Determine how a person’s body is handling cancer treatment

To diagnose other, noncancerous conditions

If you are receiving chemotherapy, your doctor will likely monitor your blood cell counts often using CBCs.

What a complete blood count measures

A CBC measures the amount of three types of cells in your blood:

White blood cell count. A white blood cell count, also called a leukocyte count, measures the total number of white blood cells in a sample of blood. These cells protect the body from infection by attacking invading bacteria, viruses, and other foreign materials in the body. Some white blood cells can also attack cancer cells.

White blood cell differential. A white blood cell differential is a test that measures the number of each type of white blood cell. There are five major types of white blood cells, and each type plays a different role in protecting the body. Your doctor can learn valuable information about your health by measuring the levels of these cells.

Red blood cell count. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout your body. A red blood cell count, also called an erythrocyte count, measures the number of red blood cells in a sample of blood. There are several ways to measure red blood cells. Two of the most common are:

Hematocrit (Hct), the percentage of your blood that is made up of red blood cells

Hemoglobin (Hgb), the amount of the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen

Platelet count. A platelet count measures the number of platelets in a sample of blood. Platelets help to stop bleeding by forming blood clots.

The amounts of each of these types of cells have a normal range. Your health care team will note this range on your CBC lab results. A range is used instead of a specific number because a normal amount is different for each person.

What the results mean

Your doctor and other members of your health care team must carefully interpret CBC test results. Keep in mind that many factors, including noncancerous conditions, can lead to results that fall out of the normal range. Ask your doctor to help you understand what your results mean.

Low white blood cell count. Some cancer treatments, mainly chemotherapy, may cause a decrease in your body’s white blood cells. Cancers that affect the blood and bone marrow can also cause a decrease in the count. These types of cancers include leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma.

Amounts of different white blood cells. Higher-than-normal numbers of lymphocytes or monocytes can indicate the possibility of certain types of cancers. Some cancers and their cancer treatments may cause neutropenia. Neutropenia is a decrease in the number of neutrophils, which increases the chances of a bacterial infection. At times, your doctor may lower your chemotherapy dose to reduce your chance of developing a low neutrophil count. Your doctor may also recommend medication, such as white blood cell growth factors, to increase your body’s production of neutrophils, especially if you develop a fever. Learn more about the use of white blood cell growth factors .

Low red blood cell count. Some cancer treatments, mainly chemotherapy and radiation therapy, may cause a decrease in red blood cells. This condition is known as anemia. Blood loss, either from surgery or specific cancers, and cancers that directly involve the bone marrow can also cause or worsen anemia. People whose red blood cell count falls too low may need a blood transfusion or medication to help increase it.

Low platelet count. Some cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, may cause a decrease in platelets. Cancers that directly involve the bone marrow can also cause a decrease in platelets. This can result in a condition called thrombocytopenia. which means a person’s blood has an unusually low level of platelets. Patients with low platelet levels have a greater risk of serious bleeding or bruising. If your platelet count falls to very low levels, your doctor may recommend platelet transfusions.

Questions to ask your doctor

Consider asking your doctor the following questions about your CBC test:

Why am I having this test?

How and where is this test done?

Do I need to avoid eating and drinking before the test? If so, for how long?

How will I get the results of my test?

What are normal test results?

What do my test results mean? Will someone help explain them to me?

If my results are within a normal range, what are the next steps?

If my results are outside of a normal range, what are the next steps?

How do these test results compare with my previous results?

Will I need additional tests? If so, when?

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