Synovial Fluid Analysis #synovial #fluid #analysis, # #2006 #21st #abnormal #abnormally #activities


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Synovial Fluid Analysis

Synovial fluid analysis is a group of tests that examine joint (synovial) fluid. The tests help diagnose and treat joint-related problems.

Alternative Names

Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration

How the test is performed

A sample of synovial fluid is needed for this test. Synovial fluid is normally a thick, straw-colored liquid found in small amounts in joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths.

After the area is cleaned, the health care provider will insert a sterile needle through the skin and into the joint space. Once in the joint, fluid is drawn through the needle into a sterile syringe.

The fluid sample is sent to the laboratory. The laboratory technician will check the sample’s color and clarity, and then place it under a microscope to check it for red and white blood cells, crystals (in the case of gout), and bacteria. In addition, there may be a chemical analysis, and if infection is a concern, a sample will be cultured to see if any bacteria grow.

How to prepare for the test

Normally, no special preparation is necessary, but contact your health care provider before the test to make sure. Tell your doctor if you are taking blood thinners, as they can affect test results.

How the test will feel

Occasionally, the health care provider will first inject local anesthesia with a small needle, which will sting. The aspiration is done with a larger needle and may also cause some pain. The procedure usually lasts less than one minute.

Why the test is performed

The test can help diagnose the cause of pain or swelling in joints. Removing the fluid can also help relieve joint pain.

This test may be used to diagnose:

  • Gout
  • Infection
  • Other inflammatory joint conditions
  • Joint injury
  • Osteoarthritis

What abnormal results mean

Abnormal joint fluid may look cloudy or abnormally thick.

Blood in the joint fluid may be a sign of injury inside the joint or a body-wide bleeding problem. An excess amount of normal synovial fluid can also be a sign of osteoarthritis.

What the risks are

  • Infection of the joint — unusual but more common with repeated aspirations
  • Bleeding into the joint space

Special considerations

Ice or cold packs may be applied to the joint for 24 to 36 hours after the test to reduce the swelling and joint pain. Depending on the exact problem, you can probably resume your normal activities after the procedure. Talk to your health care provider to determine what activity is most appropriate for you.

References

Knight JA, Kjeldsberg CR. Cerebrospinal, synovial, and serous body fluids. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2006:chap 28.

Review Date: 7/10/2009

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 2010 A.D.A.M. Inc. as modified by University of California San Francisco. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Information developed by A.D.A.M. Inc. regarding tests and test results may not directly correspond with information provided by UCSF Medical Center. Please discuss with your doctor any questions or concerns you may have.

Getting Care


Facial Swelling in Dogs: Causes and Treatments #dog #face #swelling, #dog #face


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Dog Facial Swelling: Causes and Treatment

Facial swelling in dogs can have dozens of causes, from dog bites to dental problems. The swelling can be a fairly benign reaction or it can require emergency care.

To help keep your pet pain-free and healthy, it helps to know the signs of facial swelling, and what you can do when it happens.

Common Causes and Treatments of Dog Facial Swelling

Facial swelling in dogs can be life-threatening if the swelling progresses to the throat, so don’t try to diagnose the cause of your dog’s swelling yourself. If your pet’s face looks swollen, or lopsided, get your dog to a veterinarian immediately.

Some common causes of facial swelling in dogs include:

Like people, dogs can be allergic to chemicals, foods, plants, spider bites. bee stings. medication. or a vaccine (though that’s rare). A severe allergic reaction can lead to throat swelling — cutting off your dog’s windpipe — so if your dog’s face looks swollen, if he has trouble breathing. his gums are purple or blue, or if he passes out, get your pet to a vet immediately.

Treating allergies depends on what’s causing them, but may include an antihistamine. steroids. antibiotic ointment, a special diet, as well as skin or blood tests.

Often caused by animal bites or other wounds, head and neck abscesses show up suddenly, usually accompanied by a fever, and can leave a lopsided look to your dog’s head or neck. These are extremely painful; if your dog has facial swelling and is refusing to eat or drink, an abscess could be the cause.

It’s important for abscesses to be treated right away. Treatment may include surgical drainage, anti-inflammatories, and antibiotics .

Infected or fractured teeth and untreated gum disease can also lead to abscesses, accompanied by facial swelling, fever, depression. not eating, and great pain for your dog.

Treatment for dental abscesses may include removing the infected tooth along with a course of antibiotics .

Tumors (Noncancerous and Cancerous)

Mouth and throat tumors can occur in dogs and, along with facial swelling, symptoms may include problems eating, bleeding, and excessive odor. Dogs can also get tumors associated with the eye socket, which can make the eye bulge.

Continued

Tumors, which arise from the uncontrolled growth of cells, need treatment early, whether or not they’re cancerous. Surgery to remove the tumor, or radiotherapy, may be effective treatments.

Other Causes of Facial Swelling in Dogs

Dog bites or other skin punctures can also cause a bacterial infection of the skin called cellulitis. The symptoms include swelling, ulcers, tenderness, redness, and pain.

Treatment should be determined by a veterinarian, and may include soaking the wound, flushing it with an antiseptic, painkillers, and antibiotics.

Certain dogs, including boxers, Labrador retrievers, Great Danes, Doberman pinschers, and some terriers, may develop a rare condition called craniomandibular osteopathy. This causes swelling of the jaw, and is usually seen in dogs aged 3 to 10 months. Other signs of the disease include drooling, fever, and reluctance to eat.

While there’s no treatment to cure craniomandibular osteopathy, anti-inflammatories can help control pain, and the disease often stabilizes when the dog is about a year old. Check with your vet to see what NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) he or she recommends for your dog.

Can You Prevent Facial Swelling?

Some causes of facial swelling can be prevented and some cannot. Here are some suggestions for prevention and early detection of problems:

  • To reduce the chances your dog will deal with an abscess from a puncture wound, avoid contact with wild or unknown animals, avoid giving your dog hard bones, and be sure to supervise all play with other dogs.
  • Have your pets checked by a veterinarian if you think they have allergies. As with people, preventing exposure to the allergen is often the best treatment.
  • To catch tumors early, examine your dog’s mouth once a month. If you see swelling or a growth, or if your dog’s mouth smells bad, talk to your veterinarian.

WebMD Veterinary Reference Reviewed by Amy Flowers, DVM on April 23, 2017

Sources

SOURCES:
Fogle, B. Caring for Your Dog: The Complete Canine Home Reference. DK Publishing, Inc. 2002.
American Veterinary Medical Association: “Cancer in Animals.”
Brevitz, B. The Complete Healthy Dog Handbook: The Definitive Guide to Keeping Your Pet Happy, Healthy Active. Workman Publishing Company, Inc. 2009.
Kahn, C. Merck Merial Manual for Pet Health. Merck Co. Inc. 2007.
Carlson, L. Dog Owner’s Home Veterinary Handbook, 3rd edition. Howell Book House, 2000. Mehus-Roe, K. The Original Dog Bible: The Definitive Source for All Things Dog. 2nd edition. BowTie Press, 2009.
Veterinary Dental Center / Stephen Juriga, DVM: “Jaw Facial Swelling.”
American Veterinary Dental College: “Endodontic Disease and Root Canal Treatment.”
ASPCA: “Allergies.”

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