What s a Nurse Practitioner? #nurse #practitioners, #nps, #np, #apn, #certified #family


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What’s a Nurse Practitioner?

What’s an NP?

A nurse practitioner (NP) is a registered nurse (RN) who has additional education and training in a specialty area, such as family practice or pediatrics. Pediatric and family practice NPs can provide regular health care for kids.

Nurse practitioners (also referred to as advanced practice nurses, or APNs) have a master’s degree in nursing (MS or MSN) and board certification in their specialty. For example, a pediatric NP has advanced education, skills, and training in caring for infants, children, and teens.

Licensed as nurse practitioners and registered nurses, NPs follow the rules and regulations of the Nurse Practice Act of the state where they work. If accredited through the national board exam, the NP will have an additional credential, such as Certified Pediatric Nurse Practitioner (CPNP) or Certified Family Nurse Practitioner (CFNP).

An NP who specializes in pediatrics can:

  • document health history and perform a physical exam
  • plan a child’s care with parents and the child’s health care team
  • do some tests and procedures
  • answer questions about health problems
  • treat common childhood illnesses
  • specialize in and manage chronic illnesses
  • change the plan of care with a child’s doctor as needed
  • teach families about the effects of illness on a child’s growth and development
  • teach kids about self-care and healthy lifestyle choices
  • write prescriptions
  • order medical tests
  • teach other health care members, student nurses, and local groups about children’s health care
  • provide referrals to community groups
  • provide telemedicine care for children and their parents

NPs and Doctors

Most NPs maintain close working relationships with doctors and consult them as needed. NPs are licensed in all 50 states and can dispense most medicines. Some states require a doctor to co-sign prescriptions. In a few states, NPs can practice and prescribe without physician supervision.

Although doctors have additional training to help patients deal with complex medical problems, many people feel that NPs spend more time with their patients. NP training emphasizes disease prevention, reduction of health risks, and thorough patient education.

Like doctors, NPs are involved in more than just direct patient care. Many participate in education, research, and legislative activities to improve the quality of health care in the United States.

Should My Kids See a Nurse Practitioner?

Pediatric NPs can deliver much of the health care that kids require, consulting doctors and specialists as necessary. Educating kids and their families about normal growth and childhood development issues (e.g. toilet training. temper tantrums. biting ) is a big part of the pediatric NP’s role.

Pediatric and family practice NPs can treat acute (short-term) illnesses such as upper respiratory infections, ear infections. rashes, and urinary tract infections. They can also specilaize in and manage chronic illnesses such as asthma. allergies. diabetes. and many others.

If your child has severe health problems that require advanced training or highly specialized medical care, you may need to see a doctor. If you’re unsure about your child’s specific illness and want to know if an NP can help, ask your doctor. The scope of an NP’s practice depends upon your state’s regulations.

If you want to verify an NP’s credentials, check with the American College of Nurse Practitioners (ACNP). It’s also a good idea to ask NPs about their specific qualifications, education, and training, just as you would interview any doctor for your child.

Also be sure to check with your health insurance provider to be sure that services provided by NPs are covered through your policy.

How Can I Find an NP?

You can find pediatric NPs through the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (NAPNAP) and through local hospitals or nursing schools. Also, many doctors share office space with NPs to provide all types of primary care. Other doctors work with NPs to offer them training in different types of health care. Your doctor might already have such an arrangement in place, so just ask.

Date reviewed: October 2016


Synovial Fluid Analysis #synovial #fluid #analysis, # #2006 #21st #abnormal #abnormally #activities


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Synovial Fluid Analysis

Synovial fluid analysis is a group of tests that examine joint (synovial) fluid. The tests help diagnose and treat joint-related problems.

Alternative Names

Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration

How the test is performed

A sample of synovial fluid is needed for this test. Synovial fluid is normally a thick, straw-colored liquid found in small amounts in joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths.

After the area is cleaned, the health care provider will insert a sterile needle through the skin and into the joint space. Once in the joint, fluid is drawn through the needle into a sterile syringe.

The fluid sample is sent to the laboratory. The laboratory technician will check the sample’s color and clarity, and then place it under a microscope to check it for red and white blood cells, crystals (in the case of gout), and bacteria. In addition, there may be a chemical analysis, and if infection is a concern, a sample will be cultured to see if any bacteria grow.

How to prepare for the test

Normally, no special preparation is necessary, but contact your health care provider before the test to make sure. Tell your doctor if you are taking blood thinners, as they can affect test results.

How the test will feel

Occasionally, the health care provider will first inject local anesthesia with a small needle, which will sting. The aspiration is done with a larger needle and may also cause some pain. The procedure usually lasts less than one minute.

Why the test is performed

The test can help diagnose the cause of pain or swelling in joints. Removing the fluid can also help relieve joint pain.

This test may be used to diagnose:

  • Gout
  • Infection
  • Other inflammatory joint conditions
  • Joint injury
  • Osteoarthritis

What abnormal results mean

Abnormal joint fluid may look cloudy or abnormally thick.

Blood in the joint fluid may be a sign of injury inside the joint or a body-wide bleeding problem. An excess amount of normal synovial fluid can also be a sign of osteoarthritis.

What the risks are

  • Infection of the joint — unusual but more common with repeated aspirations
  • Bleeding into the joint space

Special considerations

Ice or cold packs may be applied to the joint for 24 to 36 hours after the test to reduce the swelling and joint pain. Depending on the exact problem, you can probably resume your normal activities after the procedure. Talk to your health care provider to determine what activity is most appropriate for you.

References

Knight JA, Kjeldsberg CR. Cerebrospinal, synovial, and serous body fluids. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2006:chap 28.

Review Date: 7/10/2009

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 2010 A.D.A.M. Inc. as modified by University of California San Francisco. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

Information developed by A.D.A.M. Inc. regarding tests and test results may not directly correspond with information provided by UCSF Medical Center. Please discuss with your doctor any questions or concerns you may have.

Getting Care


Civil Rights #police #misconduct, #excessive #use #of #force, #false #arrest, #malicious #prosecution,


Nelson Cameron, Attorney at Law. is a member of the National Employment Lawyers Association, the largest attorney group in the country dedicated to fighting employment discrimination. You can visit their website at NELA.org .

Nelson Cameron, Attorney at Law. also is a member of the National Police Accountability Project, a division of the National Lawyers Guild that focuses on police misconduct. Their website is nlg-npap.org .

Background Information
  • Licensed since 1982
  • Served as a staff attorney for the Louisiana Second Circuit Court of Appeals for two years
  • Established law practice in 1984
  • Former Commissioner of the Caddo Parish Commission, serving two terms
  • Served in the U.S. Navy for four years
  • Graduated from LSU Law School with a juris doctorate
  • Graduated from LSU-Shreveport with a bachelor’s degree
  • Graduated from C.E. Byrd High School
  • Married
  • Acted several times as local counsel for the American Civil Liberties Union in federal civil rights litigation

I am licensed to practice in all federal and state courts in Louisiana, the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals and the U.S. Supreme Court. I have prosecuted federal civil rights and employment cases in the Western District of Louisiana in all of its divisions including Shreveport, Monroe, Alexandria, Lafayette and Lake Charles. I have prosecuted federal civil rights cases in the Middle (Baton Rouge) and Eastern (New Orleans) districts of Louisiana.